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Art Naif in Brazil

What is Art Naif? Aniara Matos
fevereiro 27 2007

The adjective naïf is used for the painting sort also called ingenuous and to the times primitive (in Brazil). At the time where it was launched, the term naïf was a nickname, as at other times, the painters had been called impressionistas, cubistas, futuristas, etc... Naïfs, in general, is self-taught and its painting is not on to no school or trend. This is the force of these artists who can paint without rules, nor constaints. 
They can dare everything. They are the "anarchic poets of the brush". Together Brazil with France, former-Yugoslavia, Haiti and Italy, is one of "five great" of the art naïf in the world. A great number of workmanships of Brazilian painters naïfs is part of the quantity of the main existing museums of art naïf in the world.

The two styles, however, have the alive colors in common and an imagination, estilização and taken power of synthesis for the screen with one pparently rudimentary technique. In general lines, it can be said that the art naïf sprouts of unconscious the collective one, is remained in constant renewal and if it leaves to penetrate for erudite influences, even so conserves its proper nature. Wisdom and dream if irmanam in difficult workmanships to define under an only catalogação. But what it would be this painting of popular history?

 For the critic of art Américo Pellegrini Son, the popular art if characterizes for not classical studies, for acquired rudimentary techniques in empirical way, for the espontaneidade and liberty of speech, and natural (absence of academic formal aspects, as composition, perspective and respect to the real colors). The art naïf comes, little by little, gaining space in the media. In 1974, the Frenchmen had launched a stamp with a picture of most famous of the painters naïfs, Henri Rousseau, while, in Sweden, boxes of matches already had been decorated with images created for Skum, an ingenuous painter eskimo. Moreover, he has art museums specifically naïf, in Laval, France; in Luzzara, Italy; in Figueras, Spain; in Esquel, province of Chubut, in Argentina; e, in Heblime, Yugoslavia. 

MárioTavares Chicó, in its Dictionary of the universal painting, locates the painters naïfs "close to the amateur painters and confusing itself, many times, with them, also related with the creators of a popular painting, the primitivistas are distinguished for a definable aesthetic position to the edge of the erudite, traditional or innovative art. This is faced by them with some dose of naivety, not only imitativa (in case that common in the fans) - but capable to disclose, for imagination freshness, new expressivas possibilities, thus influencing the art contemporary." The customs Rousseau pensioner (1844-1910) was valued by the French intellectuals of vanguard, as dramaturgo Alfred Jarry, the poet Guillaume Apollinaire and the painters Robert Delaunay and Pablo Picasso, and influenced the surrealistas. 

Thanks to it, other primitivistas painters had been if imposing, conquering the critical one and acquiring a position inside of the History of the Art. It is enough to cite that the Museum of Modern Art of Paris has a special room for naïfs, where if find, to the side of Rousseau, Vivin (1861-1936), Séraphine (1864-1942) and the Bauchat (1837-1938), among others. Specifically in relation the Rousseau, the ensaísta Robert Goldwater, in Primitivism in Modern Art, sees in the French painter the use of an accepted formal tradition for purely aesthetic ends; or either, the artist creates because this gives pleasure to it. It is a vital necessity. Therefore, generally the filiar concern in if the schools does not exist or to frequent courses academic. "This common attitude in relation the different plastic materials in such a way generates admiration of the critical one in relation to aborígenes as to the latest primitive", the researcher says. For the critic of art Romildo Sant'Anna, professor of the Institute of Biociências, Letters and Accurate Sciences of the UNESP, câmpus of Are Jose of the Black River, have a dialogue between the said art erudite and naïf: "These popular, ingenuous and primitive artists are foundations of the culture. He is through naïfs that many times the call Official Art goes to feed itself; he is well strong that germinates the seiva most crystalline, and of it if he drinks, when in we tire them of living in a world of illusions and appearances. 
He is in these paintings that the voice of the excluded one says. As well as they make in the really cultured countries, we must give alive naïfs of Brazil ". "the art naïf registers new forms and new ways to learn and to express the abysmal mysteries of the life with extraordinary vitality, espontaneidade and beauty", concludes Spinelli João, professor of the Institute of Arts of the UNESP, câmpus of São Paulo. 

In U.S.A., the primitivista painting was born of the tradition of limners - retratistas fans of centuries XVII the XIX - and was acquiring relief position thanks to names as Grandma Moses (1860-1961), J. Frost (1852-1929), H. Poppin (1888-1947) and J. Kane (1860-1934). What it approaches all these artists, they are French, North American or Brazilian, is the conscience of the autonomy of the pictorial space, the expressivo and ornamental use of the colors, the onírico touch that differentiates the universe bred of the reality and the present poetical blow in the pictures. In III the Triennial one of Popular Art of Bratislava, in 1972, in then the Tchecoslováquia, for example, Brazil if detached gaining the prize of better national representation. "In the occasion, a new attempt appeared of nomenclature, because all popular art was grouped under the name of ínsita art, of Latin insatus, innate. However, in the last years, the term naïf surpassed all excessively, being accepted internationally ", counts the critic Geraldo Edson de Andrade. It has until who says that the pictures of the primitivistas if are similar to the painting of children. 

Anatole Jacovsky disagrees and establishes the differences: "the painting of the children is not work of art. To they, it does not pass of amusement, while for the primitivistas is about the objective of its lives. They abolem the time and retrace to the sources, to these lost infantile paradises e, after all, reencontrados. Naïf starts where the child dies ". The critic of art Martin Green, when discoursing on art naïf, affirms that the known art as primitive private of he is passed and future. "He assumes yourself of the instant and he immortalizes it forever. It is fruit of a pure artistic tension, not of a commercial concern: what it appears is the direction of joy and estupor before the world, as if we were looking at it for the first time. This painting is the first one to beat of the existence." The Yugoslavian ensaísta Oto Bihalji-Merin, in El Naïf Art, judges that the essence and the character of the art naïf sprout in the psychic field of the innocence and simplicity. "If the artist renounces they, puts in danger the specific climate of its art. 

To long of the years or the decades, he can perfect its technique and move themselves with bigger freedom in terms of the composition. However, if its sensitivity and receptividade diminish, start if to repeat and to produce in series, being able to occur the loss of the naivety and the imaginative espontaneidade. Interesting of the painting naïf is that it is about a style that is not learned. It is born with who executes it. Each painter naïf has a proper style and in he compels them to enter in contact with the pure child who exists in our interior. This because the images naïfs can as much being delirious fancies, as grotescas caricatures or hiper-realists." As it is not academic painting, it is not studied, but if it feels. Marked for images of the daily one and the pureness of traces, colors and forms, the art naïf spreads for France, Haiti, Yugoslavia, Italy and Brazil, keeping a well specific market. "the art naïf, to if not including in the variant swing of the styles, manifest as an art submitted to its proper laws. It is not an art against the modern, only one subestimada artistic parcel more ", says Bihaljin-Merin. "In the workmanship of the painters naïfs, does not have perspective, the drawing is rustic and it almost does not have mixture of colors, since they do not have knowledge technician", Geraldo Edson de Andrade says, co-author, to the side of Jacques Ardies, of the book Art naïf in Brazil. For Ardies, the art naïf is a style that exists has milênios, since when the man drew scenes of hunting in the walls of the caves. "the artists naïfs are forcibly self-taught in the direction that they had not received influence or dirigismo from a professor of Beautiful Arts. They start to paint for impulse and look for to decide the difficulties techniques with proper ways, being pardoned when its figures perfectly are not drawn or when they appear errors of perspective symmetry and. However, the experience of the practical one to the long one of the years can provide to the painter naïf one refined technique and certeira ", Ardies explains. "the pureness with that they paint sample that they are not wanting to prove nothing, to only state the feeling by means of the brush. This is the force of the art of them ", complete Lucien Finkelstein, founder of the International Museum of Naïf Art (Mian), in Rio De Janeiro, servant, in 1995, in a large house of the Quarter of Old Cosme, with the biggest quantity of the world in the sort, congregating about 8 a thousand workmanships of 130 countries, including those where the art naïf is stronger, as Yugoslavia, Haiti and Equator, and of all the Brazilian States. 

For Ardies, specialized in art naïf since 1979, the prominence of the primitivista art inhabits exactly in the total freedom of creation of the artist, who if express with espontaneidade and innocence. "In general, the artist naïf offers to an interior vision, repleta of color, creating a world for proper itself. In Brazil, the movement grew from 1937 with Heitor of the Pleasures, Cardosinho and Sílvia. The Brazilian art naïf, therefore, does not take loaned the inspiration of the parisiense vanguard, but it reflects a reality national. Without mimicry, extremely rich and varied, it is authentic e, in the majority of the times, glad optimist and. It reflects the tropical, generous country in its vegetation, opened in its people. Country does not exist that better serves to this style. 

Today, for the diversity between the e regions the peoples who compose it, the Brazilian art has its place of prominence in the world-wide scene ". Any study on the Brazilian art naïf must pass for Heitor of the Pleasures (1898-1966), partner of Pink Noel in célebre gotten passionate Pierrô music and awardee in International the Biennial I of São Paulo, in 1951, in whose jury he was the critic and historian Herbert Read, one of the respected names more of the historiografia of the world-wide art. In Biennial posterior, Grauben Mount Rasp, Elisa Martins of the Silveira and Jose Antonio Da Silva had been gifts. 

In the exterior, painter Iracema Arditi was one of the responsible greaters for the spreading of the painting naïf, mainly for the some expositions that she organized in France. Bernardine Jose Cardoso Jr, the cited Cardosinho (1861-1947), admired for Portinari and with a workmanship in the Museum of Modern Art of New York (Moma); Chico Da Silva (1910-1985), descendant of indians, honrosa mention in the Biennial one of Venice, 1966; the indian Amati Trumai, discovered for theVillas-Boas brothers in the Aboriginal Park of the Xingu, and Antonio Poteiro, potter of profession and ceramist of talent that arrived at the screens stimulated by painters Siron Franco and Cleber Gouveia, are obligator names of the national art naïf. It has Auxiliadora Maria, (1935-1974), domestic and passadeira still discovered for the German specialist Ronald Werne in the Square of the Republic; Mittarakis read (1934-1998), that when having one of its pictures as layer of the dedicated magazine Teams to ECHO -1992, world-wide conference of the environment carried through in Rio De Janeiro, was the first Brazilian artist to have a workmanship reproduced in this magazine; Elza S., célebre for painting dressed young of fiancé, personal dream that never carried through; beyond Rosina Becker of the Valle Pear tree, whose inspiration inhabits in the Brazilian folklore, and executive former-secretary Helena Rabbit, on artists, since 1992, to the Biennial ones of Naïf Art of Brazil, carried through for the Sesc de Piracicaba. "Our idea is to be a center of reference of this art in the State", affirms Antonio of the Birth, custodian of the Biennial Naïfs of Brazil, "the discovery of the world of the inks and the brushes finishes if transforming, for one parcels out significant of these artists, in an excellent chance to be accepted in its group and of if integrating to the society. 

E, when they obtain, increases the possibility of them to be recognized and valued, independently of its origins, its cultural standards and its corporeal properties ", it argues Birth. The psychoanalyst Carl Jung arrived to affirm that "the painters naïfs represent the last echoes of the collective soul in disappearance ways". The collector Lucien Finkelstein agrees: "I affirm with full certainty that, is of our borders, the painters naïfs of Brazil are authentic door-flags of the Brazilian painting of all the trends and all the times". The great question is what specialists in art, as appraised the Louis Pauwels, Selden Rodman, Max Fourny, Anatoli Jacovski, Heléne Renard and H. Wiesner see in the workmanship naïf. The Enock critic Sacrament answers: "Experts of acurada vision, freqüentadores of the Biennial ones of Paris and Venice, of Documenta de Kassel and the FIAC, had perceived soon that the majority of the manifestations of the world-wide vanguard did not take the nothing, although glorified momentarily for the media and presented as ' tip art '. Little by little, the international critics more would be made use to accept the art naïf ". "They had become, in fact, more sensible to the allure of rude, sincere, spontaneous, warm the art, colored and strong tempered of the painter naïf", she finishes Sacrament. "Brazil is a cradle of the ingenuous painting. 

The sensorial requests created by a tropical country and its folklore, on to the freedom generated for the modern art, had made to appear in the fields and the cities thousand of ingenuouses -- the majority without any expression. Sobram few, ones thirty, whose qualities go beyond the simple rude colorismo and the anatomical incorreções arriving at the art properly said ", evaluates the São Paulo critic Flávio de Aquino. To find talentos in the universe of the primitive calls is a great fascinating e challenge. For this, she is necessary to know the biggest possible number of artists of Brazil and the Exterior, searching the characteristics that become some of these illustrious representative painters of whom it has of artisticamente more good, giving to them to prominence not as mere naïfs, but placing them it enters the main names of the universal, independent art of categories, styles and nomenclatures.

Obras De Arte Estilos : Abstração - Escultura - Pintura
Obras De Arte Tópicos : Lanscape - Musica - Tribal - Visão Do Mar
Obras De Arte Media : Escultura - Pintura
Dimensões : 20 - 29 Cm - 30 - 39 Cm - 50 - 59 Cm

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